Litter box aversion. Aggression. Inappropriate scratching or destructive behavior. Eating or chewing non-food materials. Cat carrier avoidance. Separation anxiety. Other fears and phobias that make you and your cat unhappy. When your cat develops a behavior problem, you may need professional advice.
But whom should you call? Your veterinarian should be first on the list to rule out any medical problems. But after your cat’s clean bill of health, your veterinarian may suggest the help of a certified applied animal behaviorist or a board-certified veterinary behaviorist. While either one can help you solve your cat’s adjustment difficulty, there are some differences in the services each provides.
Certified Applied Animal Behaviorists. Animal behaviorists work in a variety of capacities, assisting farmers, designing zoo habitats, protecting threatened species, expanding knowledge of human physiology and psychology, studying animals in laboratories and treating pets with behavior problems.
Unlike veterinary medical practice, treating animal behavior problems requires no license. Because of the unregulated nature of animal behavioral practice, the Animal Behavior Society (ABS) — formed in 1964 — began a program in 1986 to certify that animal behaviorists meet specific standards of education, experience and ethics.
Applied animal behaviorists are not simply animal trainers. Becoming certified in the field requires a rigorous program of education, practice and publication. Certified applied animal behaviorists must possess doctoral degrees in a related profession, five years’ professional experience, a two-year residency in animal behavior, experience working with a particular species, submission of case studies, publication and three letters of recommendation.
Determining the cause of an animal behavior problem involves an analysis of the pet, the pet’s environment and also the interactions between the pet and the family. A behavioral problem may have a particular cause in one home and a different cause in another, so it is often necessary for the expert to see the animal in the environment in which he lives. Solving the problem requires working with the pet’s human family as well as the animal.
To find a certified applied animal behaviorist, log onto the ABS website (see sidebar this page). Some may be willing to work with a client on the telephone or consult with the client’s veterinarian. Although a certified applied animal behaviorist cannot prescribe medications, he or she will work with the veterinarian if medication is required. Before embarking on a program of behavior modification, you need to have your cat examined by a veterinarian to determine if underlying medical problems might be causing the problem or affect its solution.
Board-Certified Veterinary Behaviorists. Veterinary behaviorists must first have a veterinary degree and a license to practice veterinary medicine. Animal behavior is recognized as a specialty by the American Board of Veterinary Specialists, and board certification in veterinary behavior is governed by the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists (ACVB). “It’s a relatively new specialty,” says Katherine Houpt, VMD, PhD, who is board-certified by the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists as well as being certified by the ABS as an applied animal behaviorist.
To become board-certified, veterinarians must complete a conforming residency program approved by the American College of Veterinary Behaviorists (ACBV) or find an ACBV diplomate to serve as a mentor for an approved nonconforming residency. Residents must manage a supervised behavior caseload, publish at least one scientific paper, write three case reports and pass a two-day examination. Board certification requires a veterinary doctoral degree (DVM or VMD) but does not require a PhD.
A veterinary behaviorist will be familiar with the animal’s health history and be able to look first for physical causes to the behavior problem. “A veterinary behaviorist is more familiar with drugs and the organs that metabolize drugs,” says Dr. Houpt.
Because it is a violation of state licensing laws to do primary consultations with animal owners by phone, fax or Email without having seen the animal, the ACVB website (see sidebar above) lists board-certified veterinary behaviorists as a resource for veterinarians to contact. “It has only been a specialty board for a relatively short time,” explains Dr. Houpt, who recommends starting by consulting with the pet’s veterinarian, who can refer an owner to a behavior specialist.
The Best of Both Worlds. Like Dr. Houpt, about half of the certified applied behaviorists are also veterinarians. “Board-certified veterinarians who are also certified by the Animal Behavior Society represent the best of both worlds,” says Dr. Wright.
Solving your cat’s behavior problem ensures that your cat remains a valued member of your household. “Most cat behavior problems are solvable,” says Dr. Houpt, “and cats should not be euthanized because of them.”